Gail Daley's Fine Art

Posted 5 weeks ago
Posted 5 weeks ago
<p><b><i>WHAT GENRE DO YOU WRITE?</i></b></p><p>Several Years ago, I wrote a blog defining the
many Art Genres. I decided to try the same with writing. I searched the
internet and pulled up most of these definitions from Wikipedia, and various
other internet sources who defined writing genre. It is by no means a
comprehensive list, but it might help my fellow writers when asked by a
publisher to define the genre of the book they have just written. There is an
enormous amount of information about book genres. I limited myself to fiction.
I may do a similar chart for non-fiction later though. I got the idea for the
chart from a Facebook post, but I made some changes and additions to what was
there. Please feel free to share or add to it.</p><p>MYSTERY</p><p>Mystery fiction is
a genre usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved.
In a closed circle of suspects, each suspect must have a credible motive and a
reasonable opportunity for committing the crime.</p><p><b>Noir/Hard Boiled:</b> Noir fiction is
a literary genre closely related to
the hard-boiled detective genre except that the lead character
is not a detective, but instead either a victim, a suspect, or a perpetrator.
Other common characteristics include the self-destructive qualities of the lead
character A typical protagonist of noir fiction is dealing with the legal,
political or other system that is no less
corrupt than the perpetrator by whom the protagonist is either victimized
and/or must victimize others daily, leading to lose-lose situation.</p><p><b>Cozy Mystery:</b> Cozy mysteries, also referred to as “cozies”,
are a subgenre of crime fiction in which sex and violence are
played down or treated with humor and the crime and detection takes place
in a small, socially intimate community. The term was first coined in the late
20th century when various writers attempted to re-create the Golden Age of
Detective Fiction.</p><p><b>General Mystery</b>: Mystery fiction is
a genre of fiction commonly involving a mysterious death or a crime
to be solved. The central character must be a police or amateur detective who eventually
solves the mystery by logical deduction from facts fairly presented to the
reader. Sometimes mystery books are nonfictional. “Mystery
fiction” can be detective stories in which the emphasis is on the puzzle
or suspense element and its logical solution such as a whodunit. Mystery fiction
can be contrasted with hard-boiled detective stories, which focus on
action and gritty realism.</p><p>Mystery fiction may involve
a supernatural mystery where the solution does not have to be logical,
and even no crime involved. This was common in the pulp magazines of
the 1930s and 1940s, where titles such as Dime Mystery, Thrilling
Mystery and Spicy Mystery offered what at the time were
described as “weird menace” stories—supernatural horror in the vein
of Grand Guignol. This contrasted with parallel titles of the same names
which contained conventional hard-boiled crime fiction. The first use of
“mystery” in this sense was by Dime Mystery, which started out
as an ordinary crime fiction magazine but switched to “weird menace”
during the latter part of 1933.</p><p><b>Police Procedural:</b> The police
procedural, or police crime drama, is a subgenre of detective
fiction that attempts to depict the activities of a police
force as they investigate crimes.  Traditional detective novels usually
concentrate on a single crime.  Police procedurals frequently
describe investigations into several unrelated crimes in a single story.
Traditional mysteries usually adhere to the convention of having the criminal’s
identity concealed until the climax (the so-called whodunit); in
police procedurals, the perpetrator’s identity is often known to the audience
from the outset (this is referred to as the inverted detective story).
Police procedurals describe several police-related topics such as forensics, autopsies,
the gathering of evidence, the use of search warrants, and interrogation.</p><p><b>Hobby Mystery:</b> See Cozy
Mystery. This is merely a specialized sub genre of Cozy mysteries. The
story usually centers around the main character’s hobby, such as quilting or
animals.</p><p><b>Historical Mystery:</b> The historical
mystery or historical whodunit is a subgenre of two other
genres, historical fiction and mystery fiction. These works are
set in a time usually before 1960 and the central plot involves the solving of
a mystery or crime (usually murder). Though works combining these genres have
existed since at least the early 20th century, many credit Ellis Peters

Paranormal Mystery:  Sometimes the things in a mystery just can’t be explained. That’s where the paranormal mystery comes into play. These books have an element of supernatural in them, that can include magic, witches, skeletons or ghosts, and it can include werewolves, vampires, and other creatures. The difference between paranormal and fantasy is Paranormal concerns events or experiences not subject to scientific explanation or outside the ability of science to measure or explain. ESP, ghosts and other phenomenon fit this definition. Fantasy is a genre using magic or other supernatural phenomena as a primary element of the plot or setting. (Think Harry Potter or Harry Dresdin).

ROMANCE

When classifying a Romance Novel for publishing, the writer is often also required to define the Heat Level in the Novel. Heat Level refers to the intensity of the romantic scenes in the novel and can be applied to all romance genres. These Heat Definitions were borrowed from the RomCon Romance Heat Scale: 

None: Sensuality is not the focus of the book. There may be profanity or mild violence. (e.g., Young Adult, Family Sagas)

Sweet: The romance deals with the emotional aspects of love rather than the physical. No sex or scenes of physical intimacy except kissing. No profanity. No graphic violence. (e.g., Christian Fiction, Sweet Romance, Young Adult Romance.)

Mild: There may be mildly described scenes of intimacy. There may be mild profanity or violence, 

Medium: Sometimes described as “Blush level”, it is a little more than halfway between sweet and hot with more descriptive loves scenes and profanity than mild. There may be sex scenes or the preliminary action related to it. Scenes are usually not graphic and may contain euphemisms for sexual parts of the body are common. The emphasis is very much on feeling.

Hot: There usually are detailed sex scenes, profanity and/or graphic violence.  Authors who often write at this level of sensuality include Nora Roberts, Susan Wiggs, Rebecca York, Judith Arnold, Mary Balogh, Edith Layton, and Candace Camp.

Wild Ride/Erotica: There will be graphic sex scenes, including multiple partners and or alternate lifestyles. There may be explicit adult language and/or graphic violence. (e.g., Erotic Romance, High Fantasy, Thrillers…) Within RomCon®’s website, this is referred to as Erotic Romance. Be careful here; certain subject matters are still taboo (sex with children among others) and you will need to be specific in the reasons for your rating. 

Blood Thirsty: Sensuality is not the focus of the book, but there will be graphic violence, bloody scenes, or horrific scenes with frightening or intense content. (e.g., Horror, Thrillers, some High Fantasy…), here again you need to be specific for the reason you gave the rating. 

Paranormal Romance: is a subgenre of both romantic fiction and speculative fiction. Paranormal romance focuses on romantic love and includes elements beyond the range of scientific explanation, blending themes from the speculative fiction genres of fantasy, science fiction, and horror. Paranormal romance can range from traditional category romances with a paranormal setting to stories where the main attention is on a science fiction or fantasy-based plot with a romantic subplot included. Common devices are romantic relationships between humans and vampires, shapeshifters, ghosts, and other entities of a fantastic or otherworldly nature. Beyond more common themes concern vampires, shapeshifters, ghosts, or time travel; paranormal romances can also include characters with psychic abilities, like telekinesis or telepathy. Paranormal romance has its roots in Gothic fiction, and are one of the fastest growing in the romance genre.

Contemporary Romance: is a subgenre of romance novels generally set after 1960. Contemporary is the largest of the romance novel subgenres, These novels are set in the time when they were written, and reflect the ideas and customs of their time. Heroines in contemporary romances written prior to 1970 usually quit working when they married or had children, while those written after 1970 have and keep a career. As contemporary romance novels have grown to contain more complex plotting and more realistic characters, the line between this subgenre and the genre of women’s fiction or Chick Lit has blurred. Most contemporary romance novels contain elements that date the books, so eventually the story lines become inappropriate to more modern readers and go out of print. Some do make the transition into Historical fiction, but not many.

Historical Romance:  is a broad category of fiction where the story takes place in a setting located in the past. Settings in this category will run the gamut from 1960 back into caveman times. Walter Scott helped popularize this genre in the early 19th-century, with works such as Rob Roy and Ivanhoe.  More recently author Jean Aeul’s Caveman series have been on the best seller list. Historical romances continue to be published, and notable recent examples are Conqueror by Georgette Heyer, or the Roselynde Chronicles by Roberta Gellis.

Western Romance: These books are set in America or Australia or in a contemporary or historical western setting (western United States, Canadian prairies or Australian outback), with a female lead. Readers expect the story to include horses, cowboys and a simpler way of life (but not a simpler plot). Think Joanna Lindsay or Willa Cather. For more traditional male centered westerns consider Louis L'Amour and Luke Short. The traditional male centered westerns have more in common with straight adventure fiction than romance. Women are usually secondary characters and have little or no part of the main action. Westerns are most noted for their clear lines of good and evil.

Gothic Romance: Combines romance and horror and may involve a mystery of some type. It has a long tradition, going back to the Regency/Victorian era.   Made popular by Jane Austin and others, Gothic fiction, which is widely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled (in its second edition) “A Gothic Story”. Gothic fiction creates a pleasing sense of terror; Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole’s novel. It originated in England in the second half of the 18th century and had much success in the 19th as witnessed by Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and the works of Edgar Allan Poe. Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the late Victorian era, is Bram Stoker’s Dracula. 

Regency Romance: Regency romances are a distinct genre with their own plot and stylistic conventions. These derive from the 19th-century contemporary works of Georgette Heyer, who still dominates the genre. She wrote over two dozen novels set in the Regency starting in 1935 until her death in 1974. The more traditional Regencies feature a great deal of intelligent, fast-paced dialog between the leads and very little explicit sex or discussion of sex. The plot contrivances that can be found range from Marriages of convenience and false engagements to mistaken identities. Class differences are clearly defined and create barriers. (The son of the house never marries the maid for instance).

Romantic Suspense: The most plot driven of the romance genres. It generally has a strong woman as lead who is involved in dangerous situations. The male hero usually starts out looking like the bad guy but turns out to be good. The setting for these books can be anywhen from deep in the past to contemporary. Think Mary Stewart, Victoria Holt or Barbara Michaels.

THRILLERS

Thriller is a broad genre having numerous subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the mood of fear and suspense they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of excitement, surprise and anxiety. A thriller generally has a more villain driven plot than adventure. This list is my no means all inclusive.

Eco Thriller: Eco thrillers are normally set around a threat (natural or man-made) to the environment, and combine action, adventure with maybe a touch of mystery. They are fast-paced and usually laced with science. The lead character must find a way to negate the threat.

Supernatural Thriller: Supernatural fiction or supernaturalist fiction involves plot devices or themes that contradict Ideas and assumptions commonplace in the natural world. It is very closely aligned with Horror though usually in a more inhibited fashion. This genre brings in an otherworldly element, Often the hero and/or villain has (or at least claims) some psychic ability.

Historical Thriller: This genre differs from other thrillers in that is set in the past, usually prior to 1960. It may also contain elements of espionage, military or other genres but should not be confused with political/conspiracy thrillers which occur in a more contemporary setting.

Medical/Psychological Thrillers: I have lumped these to together because they draw from similar backgrounds. In Medical Thrillers, a doctor’s life is often threatened (because they helped a certain patient), or a mysterious (usually artificial) disease has broken out. Robin Cook and Tess Gerritsen are leaders in this subgenre. Sandra Wilkenson’s novel Death On Call is an early example. (sometimes the authors are doctors themselves.) Psychological subgenre tales build up slowly, with ever-increasing doubt and tension, until some explicit action/violence takes place, usually at the finale.

Political/Conspiracy Thriller: This genre is very similar in some ways to the Environmental Thriller. Usually the hero or heroine confronts a large, well organized company, government dept., or group. The threat posed by this group is only perceived by the protagonist. A great deal of the plot revolves around a single individual defeating the above groups while encountering disbelief from everyone around him/her. Perplexing forces pull strings in the life of the lead character – if not throughout the world. Usually the hero becomes a threat to the conspirators, and must escape their wrath. Often these stories depict the aberrations caused by secrecy, and the corrupting influence of power. 

Espionage or Spy Thriller: As a genre, spy fiction is thematically related to the adventure novel and involves espionage as an important background or plot device. It emerged in the early twentieth century, inspired by rivalries and intrigues between the major powers, and the establishment of modern intelligence agencies. The genre was given new impetus by the increase of fascism and communism in the lead-up to World War II. It continued to develop during the Cold War, and received a fresh impetus from the emergence of rogue states like ISIS, international criminal organizations, global terrorist networks, maritime piracy and technological sabotage as convincing threats to Western societies.

Techno Thriller: A techno-thriller is a hybrid genre drawing plot elements from science fiction, thrillers, spy fiction, action, and war novels. They include a lopsided amount of technical details on their subject matter; only hard science fiction tends towards a comparable level of supporting detail on the technical side. The inner workings of technology and the mechanics of various practices (espionage, martial arts, politics) are thoroughly explored, and the plot often turns on the of that exploration.

Military Thriller: the focus of this genre is on the development of the crisis, and the detailing of the military action. an aggressive move by the Bad Guys forces the Good to wage large-scale combat to stop them. This can also be found on a smaller scale with many novels set in WWII or prior. However, these are cross genre novels coinciding with Historical thrillers.

Legal Thriller: the plot usually is centered around courtroom action, with a lawyer as the protagonist. This is not to be confused with a Courtroom Drama. In a courtroom drama, the reader often doesn’t know who the villain is until the climax of the story. In a legal thriller, the reader generally knows who the bad guy is from the beginning and the action focuses on whether justice is served.

SCIENCE FICTION

Science fiction or speculative fiction (often shortened to SF, sci-fi or scifi) is a genre dealing with notions such as futuristic science, technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes, and extraterrestrial life. Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific innovations, and has been referred a “literature of ideas,” or future casting. It usually avoids the supernatural, and unlike the related genre of fantasy, science fiction stories were intended to have a grounding in science-based facts or theories prevalent at the time the story was created; a description now limited to hard science fiction.

Dystopian / Utopian: utopia and its derivative, dystopia, are genres exploring social and political structures. Utopian fiction shows a setting agreeing with the author’s ideology, and has attributes of different reality to appeal to readers. Dystopian (or dystopic) fiction (sometimes combined with, but distinct from apocalyptic literature) is the opposite. It shows a setting that completely disagrees with the author’s ideology. Many novels combine both, often as a metaphor for the different directions humanity can take, depending on its choices. Both utopias and dystopias are commonly found in science fiction and other speculative fiction genres and arguably are a type of speculative fiction. Apocalyptic Science Fiction is a sub-genre of Dystopian Science Fiction covering the end of civilization, through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. The time frame may be immediately after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, or considerably later, often including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten or mythologized. Post apocalyptic stories often take place in an agrarian, non-technological future world, or a world where only scattered elements of technology remain.

Space Opera: is a subgenre of science fiction emphasizing space warfare, melodramatic adventure, interplanetary battles, risk-taking, and chivalric romance. Set mainly or entirely in outer space, it frequently involves conflict between opponents possessing advanced abilities, futuristic weapons, and other sophisticated technology. The term has no relation to music but was coined during the 1930s to indicate clichéd and formulaic stories in several genres. Space operas emerged in the 1930s and they continue to be produced in literature, film, comics, and video games. The most notable was probably produced by E.E. “Doc” Smith.

Cyberpunk: Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction taking place in a future setting. It tends to focus on society as “high tech low life" showcasing advanced technological and scientific accomplishments, such as information technology and cybernetics, creating a breakdown or radical change in the social order. Cyberpunk plots often center on conflict among artificial intelligences, hackers, and megacorporation’s in a near-future Earth. The settings are usually post-industrial dystopias but feature extraordinary cultural turmoil and the use of technology in ways never anticipated by its original inventors. Much of the genre’s atmosphere echoes film noir writers and often uses modus operandi from this genre of detective fiction.

Military Science Fiction: is a subgenre of science fiction that uses science fiction technology, mainly weapons, for military purposes. Its principal characters are generally members of a military organization involved in military activity. The action sometimes takes place in outer space or on a different planet or planets. It is found in literature, comics, film, and video games. A detailed description of the conflict, the tactics and weapons used, and the role of a military service and the individual members of that military organization generally forms the basis for a work of military science fiction. The stories often use events of actual past or current Earth conflicts, with countries being replaced by planets or galaxies of similar characteristics, battleships replaced by space battleships and certain events changed so that the author can induce what might have occurred differently.

Hard/Soft Science Fiction: is a category of science fiction marked by an emphasis on scientific accuracy. The terms were first used in print in 1957 by P. Schuyler Miller in a review of John W. Campbell, Jr.‘s "Islands of Space" in Astounding Science Fiction. The complementary term Soft Science Fiction, formed by comparison to hard science fiction, first appeared in the late 1970s. It was created to emphasize the distinction between the "hard” (natural) and “soft” (social) sciences. Science fiction critic Gary Westfahl thinks that both terms are ways of describing stories that reviewers and commentators have found useful.

Alternate History: or alternative history (British English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently than as history recorded them. These stories are set in a world in which history has deviated from history as it is generally known; more simply put, alternate history asks the question, “What if history had developed differently?” Most works in this genre are set in real historical contexts, yet feature social, geopolitical or industrial settings that developed differently or at a different pace from our own. This subgenre comprises fiction in which a change or point of divergence happens that causes history to diverge from our own.

Steampunk:  is a subgenre of science fiction or science fantasy that refers to works set in an era where steam power is still widely used;19th century’s British Victorian era or American “Wild West, where steam power has maintained mainstream usage, or in a fantasy world that employs steam power in the same way. Although its literary origins are sometimes identified with the cyberpunk genre, it has marked differences. Inventions like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne are often included. Steampunk encompasses alternate history-style elements of past technology like dirigibles or mechanical computers combined with futuristic technology like multi-function goggles, giant robots and ray guns. Steampunk may be described as neo-Victorian. It most recognizably features anachronistic technologies or retro futuristic inventions as people in the 19th century might have envisioned them, and is likewise rooted in the era’s perspective on fashion, culture, architectural style, and art.

Romantic Science Fiction: This genre seems to be written almost exclusively for and by women. In most cases, it is simply a love story set in the future or a distant planet, although it can be set in the past or an alternate world as well. It centers more on relationships than on science, and any futuristic or fantasy elements take second place to the relationships. Usually there is no attempt to explain why the technology works; only its actions are described. A flying car or spaceship is simply said to go places, time travel simply happens without any attempt to describe the scientific method by which this might work. Probably the two most recognizable writers of romantic science fiction are Jayne Castle’s (AKA Krenz) books on Harmony and Diana Gabaldon’s Highlander series (now a TV series). Romantic Sci-Fi includes the sub-genre of Romantic Fantasy (virtually the same except magic is used rather than technology). A fuller description of this sub genre can be found in the Romance category.

FANTASY

Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, most often without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses magic or other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy is generally distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the expectation that it will steer clear of scientific and macabre themes, though there is a great deal of overlap among the three, all of which are subgenres of speculative fiction.

Urban Fantasy:   is a subgenre of fantasy defined by place; it is a fantastic narrative with an urban setting. Urban fantasy exists on one side of a spectrum opposite high fantasy, which is set in an entirely fictitious world. Many urban fantasies are set in contemporary times with supernatural elements. However, the stories can take place in historical, modern, or futuristic periods. The prerequisite is that they must be primarily set in a city.

Contemporary Fantasy:  is generally distinguished from horror fiction—which also has contemporary settings and fantastic elements—by the overall tone; emphasizing joy or wonder rather than fear or dread. These are stories set in the accepted real world in contemporary times; magic and magical creatures exist but are not commonly seen or understood; either living in the crevices of our world or leaking over from alternate worlds. It has much in common with and sometimes overlaps with secret history. A work of fantasy where the magic does not remain secret, or does not have any known relationship to known history, would not fit into this subgenre.

Traditional Fantasy:

Please see the definition of Fantasy above.

Horror: is a genre of fiction which is intended to frighten, scare, disgust, or startle their readers or viewers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon has defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length… which shocks or even frightens the reader, or perhaps induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing”. It creates an eerie and frightening atmosphere. Horror is frequently supernatural though it can be non-supernatural. Often the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society.

Historical Fantasy: This is a category of fantasy and a sub genre of historical fiction that combines fantastic elements (such as magic) into the story. There is much crossover with other subgenres of fantasy; books classed as Arthurian, Celtic, or Dark Ages could just as easily be placed in Historical Fantasy. Stories fitting this classification generally take place prior to the 20th century. 

Weird Fiction: is a subgenre of speculative fiction starting in the late 19th and early 20th century. It can include ghost stories and other tales of the macabre. Weird fiction is distinguished from horror and fantasy in its blending of supernatural, mythical, and even scientific elements. British authors who have embraced this style have published their work in mainstream literary magazines. American weird fiction writers included Edgar Allan Poe, William Hope Hodgson, H. P. Lovecraft, Lord Dunsany, Arthur Machen M. R. James, and Clark Ashton Smith.

Comic Fantasy:  is a subgenre of fantasy that is primarily humorous in intent and tone. Usually set in imaginary worlds, comic fantasy can spoof and parody other works of fantasy, detective fiction or other genres. It is sometimes known as Low Fantasy in contrast to High Fantasy, which is primarily serious in intent and tone. The term “low fantasy” is used to represent other types of fantasy, however, so while comic fantasies may also correctly be classified as low fantasy, many examples of low fantasy are not comic in nature. Two of the most famous examples in this genre would be the Myth Series which successfully spoofed Fantasy and the Garrett P.I. series which did a parody of Rex Stout’s Nero Wolfe detective series. Other writers of comic fantasy are emerging; notably Dakota Cassidy with her werewolf/witch spoofs and Amanda M. Lee’s Wicked Witches of the Midwest series.

Slipstream: Slipstream is a kind of fantastic or non-realistic fiction that crosses the traditional genre boundaries between science fiction, fantasy, and literary fiction. Slipstream falls between speculative fiction and mainstream fiction. While some slipstream novels employ elements of science fiction or fantasy, not all do. The common unifying factor of these books is some degree of the surreal, the not-entirely real, or the markedly anti-real.

Epic / High Fantasy: High Fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy, and is defined by its setting in a fictional universe or by the epic stature of its characters, themes, and plot. The term “high fantasy” was coined by Lloyd Alexander in a 1971 essay, “High Fantasy and Heroic Romance” (originally given at the New England Round Table of Children’s Librarians in October 1969). Epic Fantasy has been described as containing three elements: it must be a trilogy or longer, its time-span must encompass years or more, and it must contain a large back-story or universe setting in which the story takes place.

ADVENTURE

Adventure fiction refers to fiction that puts the lead characters in danger, or gives the reader a sense of excitement

Traditional Western: Western fiction is a genre set in the American Old West frontier from the late eighteenth to the late nineteenth century. Well-known writers of Western fiction include Zane Grey from the early 20th century and Louis L'Amour and John McCord from the mid-20th century. A traditional western includes cowboys, Native Americans, covered wagons, and women in aprons with shotguns. The genre peaked around the early 1960s, largely due to the popularity of televised Westerns such as Bonanza. Readership began to drop off in the mid- to late 1970s and has reached a new low in the 2000s. Most bookstores, carry few Western fiction books. Nevertheless, several Western fiction series are published monthly, such as The Trailsman, Slocum, Longarm and The Gunsmith. The genre has seen the rumblings of a revival with the advent of romances in western settings by authors such as Linda Lael Miller and Joanna Lindsey.

Treasure Hunting: treasure hunting fiction has a great deal in common with both detective fiction and straight adventure fiction. The hunter must solve a series of clues to find the treasure A good treasure hunting novel delivers thrills and a rising excitement as clues are worked out and uncovered.  There is also opposition from rivals as well. And of course, the hunt has a successful conclusion, or an adequate reason is given why it does not.

MISCELLANEOUS GENRES

General: like Children’s and Youth Fiction, General Fiction can span all decades and genres. These are books that fall into the general fiction genre are often ones that straddle so many genres it’s hard to place them in any specific genre. The books in the general fiction genre can be a combination of any three or more genres of fiction that cause them to be outside the limits and rules of those specific genres. Examples of this: a science fiction, fantasy, romance that has strong elements of comedy and action and adventure. The Kite Runner, Water for Elephants, Life of Pi, The Great Gatsby, The Time Traveler’s Wife, and the Poisonwood Bible. General Fiction is that strange catch-all genre where titles no one knows how to classify end up. This section generally takes up about half a bookstore’s inventory. But even though it’s a vague term, there are some types fiction that are guaranteed to be found in this section of bookstores or libraries. Classic Literature: Stories that are representative of the time in which they were written, but because they have a universal appeal, the books lasted in print and popularity.  Drama: A novel centered on the conflict or contrast of characters. Humor:  A humorous novel has one goal:  to provide amusement and make the reader laugh.  Satire: This is category closely related to humor, but it has a more malicious edge. Its main elements are irony, sarcasm and parody. Unlike straight humor, satire is created to draw attention to social problems through wit. Satire always have a message of some kind. Realistic Fiction: All realistic fiction has these three elements 1) a setting that can be found in the real world 2) the characters will be lifelike and fully formed 3) a conflict or problem that centers on everyday issues or personal relationships that could exist in real life. Tragedy: A tragedy takes a reader through events leading to the self-destruction or catastrophe for the lead characters or those around them. It is sometimes referred to as a tear-jerker. A tragicomedy is a combination of tragedy and comedy. To qualify as this type of fiction there must be an equal mixture of both tragedy and comedy. Chick Lit or Women’s Fiction: This is fiction aimed at women and addresses a variety of subjects, i.e. from shopping to relationships. Think Sex and the City. Inspirational Fiction: this type of novel has the goal of inspiring the reader. Its lead characters overcome obstacles and it can be set in the past, present or the future provided that the setting could occur in real life. Most Christian fiction will fall under this category. Historical Fiction: we covered Historical fiction in the various genres, but there are some novels who simply don’t fit into them. The main idea would be to showcase the past in an accurate manner while making the characters and interesting. If it involves real events, they must be reported accurately and without change. The most successful historical fiction sometimes tells the story of ordinary people and how they are affected by historical events.

Youth Fiction (YA): I made this a separate category because the plots of these novels span all the genres. Young adult fiction or young adult literature (YA) is fiction for readers from 12 to 18. However, authors and readers of “young teen novels” often define it as works written for age 15 to the early 20s. The terms young adult novel, juvenile novel, teenage fiction, young adult book, etc., all refer to the works in this category.  The subject and story lines of young adult literature must be consistent with the age and experience of the main character, but this literature spans the spectrum of fiction genres. Stories that focus on the specific challenges of youth or teens are sometimes referred to as coming-of-age novels. 

Children’s Fiction: is a genre all to itself. This is children’s books written especially for children from 0 to 12 years old. Like YA fiction, it includes a broad spectrum of the genres, with certain differences from YA and Adult fiction. Picture Books: Children’s books that provide a “visual experience” - tell a story with pictures. There may or may not be text with the book. The content of the book can be explained with the illustrated pictures. Picture Story Books are Children’s books that have pictures or illustrations to complement the story and usually are aimed for a trifle older audience depending on their reading ability. These are often done on a collaborative basis with the author employing an illustrator, or vice versa. Both the text and the illustrations are important to the development of the story. The pictures are the “eye-candy” that get children’s attention, but the text is needed to complete the story. Traditional Literature, includes stories passed down from generation to generation. In many ways, the fact that they do change over time is what makes them so fascinating because of the link they provide to the past. To remain meaningful in different eras, the stories while keeping much of their original flavor and content,  must evolve in subtle ways to be acceptable to current mores and culture. These are folktales, fairy tales, fables, legends and myths. Children’s Historical Fiction is stories that are written to illustrate or convey information about a specific time or historical event. Authors use historical fiction to create drama and interest based on real events in people’s lives. Children’s Modern Fantasy is probably easier to define by example or by what it isn’t. The stories are contemporary or nondescript as to time periods. They are imaginative tales requiring readers to accept story lines that clearly cannot be true. They may be based on animals that talk, facets of science fiction, supernatural or horror, or combinations of these elements. “Charlottes Web,” “Winnie the Pooh,” “Alice in Wonderland”, “Willie Wonka and the Chocolate Factory,” and “The Wizard of Oz” are all examples of modern fantasy written for young readers up to 12 years old. Children’s Realistic Fiction has main characters of roughly the age (or slightly older than) the book’s intended audience. The books offer a “real-world” problem or challenge and show how a young person solves that problem.

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WHAT GENRE DO YOU WRITE?

Several Years ago, I wrote a blog defining the many Art Genres. I decided to try the same with writing. I searched the internet and pulled up most of these definitions from Wikipedia, and various other internet sources who defined writing genre. It is by no means a comprehensive list, but it might help my fellow writers when asked by a publisher to define the genre of the book they have just written. There is an enormous amount of information about book genres. I limited myself to fiction. I may do a similar chart for non-fiction later though. I got the idea for the chart from a Facebook post, but I made some changes and additions to what was there. Please feel free to share or add to it.

MYSTERY

Mystery fiction is a genre usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved. In a closed circle of suspects, each suspect must have a credible motive and a reasonable opportunity for committing the crime.

Noir/Hard Boiled: Noir fiction is a literary genre closely related to the hard-boiled detective genre except that the lead character is not a detective, but instead either a victim, a suspect, or a perpetrator. Other common characteristics include the self-destructive qualities of the lead character A typical protagonist of noir fiction is dealing with the legal, political or other system that is no less corrupt than the perpetrator by whom the protagonist is either victimized and/or must victimize others daily, leading to lose-lose situation.

Cozy Mystery: Cozy mysteries, also referred to as “cozies”, are a subgenre of crime fiction in which sex and violence are played down or treated with humor and the crime and detection takes place in a small, socially intimate community. The term was first coined in the late 20th century when various writers attempted to re-create the Golden Age of Detective Fiction.

General Mystery: Mystery fiction is a genre of fiction commonly involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved. The central character must be a police or amateur detective who eventually solves the mystery by logical deduction from facts fairly presented to the reader. Sometimes mystery books are nonfictional. “Mystery fiction” can be detective stories in which the emphasis is on the puzzle or suspense element and its logical solution such as a whodunit. Mystery fiction can be contrasted with hard-boiled detective stories, which focus on action and gritty realism.

Mystery fiction may involve a supernatural mystery where the solution does not have to be logical, and even no crime involved. This was common in the pulp magazines of the 1930s and 1940s, where titles such as Dime Mystery, Thrilling Mystery and Spicy Mystery offered what at the time were described as “weird menace” stories—supernatural horror in the vein of Grand Guignol. This contrasted with parallel titles of the same names which contained conventional hard-boiled crime fiction. The first use of “mystery” in this sense was by Dime Mystery, which started out as an ordinary crime fiction magazine but switched to “weird menace” during the latter part of 1933.

Police Procedural: The police procedural, or police crime drama, is a subgenre of detective fiction that attempts to depict the activities of a police force as they investigate crimes.  Traditional detective novels usually concentrate on a single crime.  Police procedurals frequently describe investigations into several unrelated crimes in a single story. Traditional mysteries usually adhere to the convention of having the criminal’s identity concealed until the climax (the so-called whodunit); in police procedurals, the perpetrator’s identity is often known to the audience from the outset (this is referred to as the inverted detective story). Police procedurals describe several police-related topics such as forensics, autopsies, the gathering of evidence, the use of search warrants, and interrogation.

Hobby Mystery: See Cozy Mystery. This is merely a specialized sub genre of Cozy mysteries. The story usually centers around the main character’s hobby, such as quilting or animals.

Historical Mystery: The historical mystery or historical whodunit is a subgenre of two other genres, historical fiction and mystery fiction. These works are set in a time usually before 1960 and the central plot involves the solving of a mystery or crime (usually murder). Though works combining these genres have existed since at least the early 20th century, many credit Ellis Peters's Cadfael Chronicles (1977-1994) for making popular what would become known as the historical mystery. The increasing prevalence of this kind of fiction in succeeding decades spawned a distinct subgenre. 

Paranormal Mystery:  Sometimes the things in a mystery just can’t be explained. That’s where the paranormal mystery comes into play. These books have an element of supernatural in them, that can include magic, witches, skeletons or ghosts, and it can include werewolves, vampires, and other creatures. The difference between paranormal and fantasy is Paranormal concerns events or experiences not subject to scientific explanation or outside the ability of science to measure or explain. ESP, ghosts and other phenomenon fit this definition. Fantasy is a genre using magic or other supernatural phenomena as a primary element of the plot or setting. (Think Harry Potter or Harry Dresdin).

ROMANCE

When classifying a Romance Novel for publishing, the writer is often also required to define the Heat Level in the Novel. Heat Level refers to the intensity of the romantic scenes in the novel and can be applied to all romance genres. These Heat Definitions were borrowed from the RomCon Romance Heat Scale: 

None: Sensuality is not the focus of the book. There may be profanity or mild violence. (e.g., Young Adult, Family Sagas)

Sweet: The romance deals with the emotional aspects of love rather than the physical. No sex or scenes of physical intimacy except kissing. No profanity. No graphic violence. (e.g., Christian Fiction, Sweet Romance, Young Adult Romance.)

Mild: There may be mildly described scenes of intimacy. There may be mild profanity or violence, 

Medium: Sometimes described as “Blush level”, it is a little more than halfway between sweet and hot with more descriptive loves scenes and profanity than mild. There may be sex scenes or the preliminary action related to it. Scenes are usually not graphic and may contain euphemisms for sexual parts of the body are common. The emphasis is very much on feeling.

Hot: There usually are detailed sex scenes, profanity and/or graphic violence.  Authors who often write at this level of sensuality include Nora Roberts, Susan Wiggs, Rebecca York, Judith Arnold, Mary Balogh, Edith Layton, and Candace Camp.

Wild Ride/Erotica: There will be graphic sex scenes, including multiple partners and or alternate lifestyles. There may be explicit adult language and/or graphic violence. (e.g., Erotic Romance, High Fantasy, Thrillers…) Within RomCon®’s website, this is referred to as Erotic Romance. Be careful here; certain subject matters are still taboo (sex with children among others) and you will need to be specific in the reasons for your rating. 

Blood Thirsty: Sensuality is not the focus of the book, but there will be graphic violence, bloody scenes, or horrific scenes with frightening or intense content. (e.g., Horror, Thrillers, some High Fantasy…), here again you need to be specific for the reason you gave the rating. 

Paranormal Romance: is a subgenre of both romantic fiction and speculative fiction. Paranormal romance focuses on romantic love and includes elements beyond the range of scientific explanation, blending themes from the speculative fiction genres of fantasy, science fiction, and horror. Paranormal romance can range from traditional category romances with a paranormal setting to stories where the main attention is on a science fiction or fantasy-based plot with a romantic subplot included. Common devices are romantic relationships between humans and vampires, shapeshifters, ghosts, and other entities of a fantastic or otherworldly nature. Beyond more common themes concern vampires, shapeshifters, ghosts, or time travel; paranormal romances can also include characters with psychic abilities, like telekinesis or telepathy. Paranormal romance has its roots in Gothic fiction, and are one of the fastest growing in the romance genre.

Contemporary Romance: is a subgenre of romance novels generally set after 1960. Contemporary is the largest of the romance novel subgenres, These novels are set in the time when they were written, and reflect the ideas and customs of their time. Heroines in contemporary romances written prior to 1970 usually quit working when they married or had children, while those written after 1970 have and keep a career. As contemporary romance novels have grown to contain more complex plotting and more realistic characters, the line between this subgenre and the genre of women’s fiction or Chick Lit has blurred. Most contemporary romance novels contain elements that date the books, so eventually the story lines become inappropriate to more modern readers and go out of print. Some do make the transition into Historical fiction, but not many.

Historical Romance:  is a broad category of fiction where the story takes place in a setting located in the past. Settings in this category will run the gamut from 1960 back into caveman times. Walter Scott helped popularize this genre in the early 19th-century, with works such as Rob Roy and Ivanhoe.  More recently author Jean Aeul’s Caveman series have been on the best seller list. Historical romances continue to be published, and notable recent examples are Conqueror by Georgette Heyer, or the Roselynde Chronicles by Roberta Gellis.

Western Romance: These books are set in America or Australia or in a contemporary or historical western setting (western United States, Canadian prairies or Australian outback), with a female lead. Readers expect the story to include horses, cowboys and a simpler way of life (but not a simpler plot). Think Joanna Lindsay or Willa Cather. For more traditional male centered westerns consider Louis L'Amour and Luke Short. The traditional male centered westerns have more in common with straight adventure fiction than romance. Women are usually secondary characters and have little or no part of the main action. Westerns are most noted for their clear lines of good and evil.

Gothic Romance: Combines romance and horror and may involve a mystery of some type. It has a long tradition, going back to the Regency/Victorian era.   Made popular by Jane Austin and others, Gothic fiction, which is widely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled (in its second edition) “A Gothic Story”. Gothic fiction creates a pleasing sense of terror; Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole’s novel. It originated in England in the second half of the 18th century and had much success in the 19th as witnessed by Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and the works of Edgar Allan Poe. Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the late Victorian era, is Bram Stoker’s Dracula. 

Regency Romance: Regency romances are a distinct genre with their own plot and stylistic conventions. These derive from the 19th-century contemporary works of Georgette Heyer, who still dominates the genre. She wrote over two dozen novels set in the Regency starting in 1935 until her death in 1974. The more traditional Regencies feature a great deal of intelligent, fast-paced dialog between the leads and very little explicit sex or discussion of sex. The plot contrivances that can be found range from Marriages of convenience and false engagements to mistaken identities. Class differences are clearly defined and create barriers. (The son of the house never marries the maid for instance).

Romantic Suspense: The most plot driven of the romance genres. It generally has a strong woman as lead who is involved in dangerous situations. The male hero usually starts out looking like the bad guy but turns out to be good. The setting for these books can be anywhen from deep in the past to contemporary. Think Mary Stewart, Victoria Holt or Barbara Michaels.

THRILLERS

Thriller is a broad genre having numerous subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the mood of fear and suspense they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of excitement, surprise and anxiety. A thriller generally has a more villain driven plot than adventure. This list is my no means all inclusive.

Eco Thriller: Eco thrillers are normally set around a threat (natural or man-made) to the environment, and combine action, adventure with maybe a touch of mystery. They are fast-paced and usually laced with science. The lead character must find a way to negate the threat.

Supernatural Thriller: Supernatural fiction or supernaturalist fiction involves plot devices or themes that contradict Ideas and assumptions commonplace in the natural world. It is very closely aligned with Horror though usually in a more inhibited fashion. This genre brings in an otherworldly element, Often the hero and/or villain has (or at least claims) some psychic ability.

Historical Thriller: This genre differs from other thrillers in that is set in the past, usually prior to 1960. It may also contain elements of espionage, military or other genres but should not be confused with political/conspiracy thrillers which occur in a more contemporary setting.

Medical/Psychological Thrillers: I have lumped these to together because they draw from similar backgrounds. In Medical Thrillers, a doctor’s life is often threatened (because they helped a certain patient), or a mysterious (usually artificial) disease has broken out. Robin Cook and Tess Gerritsen are leaders in this subgenre. Sandra Wilkenson’s novel Death On Call is an early example. (sometimes the authors are doctors themselves.) Psychological subgenre tales build up slowly, with ever-increasing doubt and tension, until some explicit action/violence takes place, usually at the finale.

Political/Conspiracy Thriller: This genre is very similar in some ways to the Environmental Thriller. Usually the hero or heroine confronts a large, well organized company, government dept., or group. The threat posed by this group is only perceived by the protagonist. A great deal of the plot revolves around a single individual defeating the above groups while encountering disbelief from everyone around him/her. Perplexing forces pull strings in the life of the lead character – if not throughout the world. Usually the hero becomes a threat to the conspirators, and must escape their wrath. Often these stories depict the aberrations caused by secrecy, and the corrupting influence of power. 

Espionage or Spy Thriller: As a genre, spy fiction is thematically related to the adventure novel and involves espionage as an important background or plot device. It emerged in the early twentieth century, inspired by rivalries and intrigues between the major powers, and the establishment of modern intelligence agencies. The genre was given new impetus by the increase of fascism and communism in the lead-up to World War II. It continued to develop during the Cold War, and received a fresh impetus from the emergence of rogue states like ISIS, international criminal organizations, global terrorist networks, maritime piracy and technological sabotage as convincing threats to Western societies.

Techno Thriller: A techno-thriller is a hybrid genre drawing plot elements from science fiction, thrillers, spy fiction, action, and war novels. They include a lopsided amount of technical details on their subject matter; only hard science fiction tends towards a comparable level of supporting detail on the technical side. The inner workings of technology and the mechanics of various practices (espionage, martial arts, politics) are thoroughly explored, and the plot often turns on the of that exploration.

Military Thriller: the focus of this genre is on the development of the crisis, and the detailing of the military action. an aggressive move by the Bad Guys forces the Good to wage large-scale combat to stop them. This can also be found on a smaller scale with many novels set in WWII or prior. However, these are cross genre novels coinciding with Historical thrillers.

Legal Thriller: the plot usually is centered around courtroom action, with a lawyer as the protagonist. This is not to be confused with a Courtroom Drama. In a courtroom drama, the reader often doesn’t know who the villain is until the climax of the story. In a legal thriller, the reader generally knows who the bad guy is from the beginning and the action focuses on whether justice is served.

SCIENCE FICTION

Science fiction or speculative fiction (often shortened to SF, sci-fi or scifi) is a genre dealing with notions such as futuristic science, technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes, and extraterrestrial life. Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific innovations, and has been referred a “literature of ideas,” or future casting. It usually avoids the supernatural, and unlike the related genre of fantasy, science fiction stories were intended to have a grounding in science-based facts or theories prevalent at the time the story was created; a description now limited to hard science fiction.

Dystopian / Utopian: utopia and its derivative, dystopia, are genres exploring social and political structures. Utopian fiction shows a setting agreeing with the author’s ideology, and has attributes of different reality to appeal to readers. Dystopian (or dystopic) fiction (sometimes combined with, but distinct from apocalyptic literature) is the opposite. It shows a setting that completely disagrees with the author’s ideology. Many novels combine both, often as a metaphor for the different directions humanity can take, depending on its choices. Both utopias and dystopias are commonly found in science fiction and other speculative fiction genres and arguably are a type of speculative fiction. Apocalyptic Science Fiction is a sub-genre of Dystopian Science Fiction covering the end of civilization, through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. The time frame may be immediately after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, or considerably later, often including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten or mythologized. Post apocalyptic stories often take place in an agrarian, non-technological future world, or a world where only scattered elements of technology remain.

Space Opera: is a subgenre of science fiction emphasizing space warfare, melodramatic adventure, interplanetary battles, risk-taking, and chivalric romance. Set mainly or entirely in outer space, it frequently involves conflict between opponents possessing advanced abilities, futuristic weapons, and other sophisticated technology. The term has no relation to music but was coined during the 1930s to indicate clichéd and formulaic stories in several genres. Space operas emerged in the 1930s and they continue to be produced in literature, film, comics, and video games. The most notable was probably produced by E.E. “Doc” Smith.

Cyberpunk: Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction taking place in a future setting. It tends to focus on society as “high tech low life" showcasing advanced technological and scientific accomplishments, such as information technology and cybernetics, creating a breakdown or radical change in the social order. Cyberpunk plots often center on conflict among artificial intelligences, hackers, and megacorporation’s in a near-future Earth. The settings are usually post-industrial dystopias but feature extraordinary cultural turmoil and the use of technology in ways never anticipated by its original inventors. Much of the genre’s atmosphere echoes film noir writers and often uses modus operandi from this genre of detective fiction.

Military Science Fiction: is a subgenre of science fiction that uses science fiction technology, mainly weapons, for military purposes. Its principal characters are generally members of a military organization involved in military activity. The action sometimes takes place in outer space or on a different planet or planets. It is found in literature, comics, film, and video games. A detailed description of the conflict, the tactics and weapons used, and the role of a military service and the individual members of that military organization generally forms the basis for a work of military science fiction. The stories often use events of actual past or current Earth conflicts, with countries being replaced by planets or galaxies of similar characteristics, battleships replaced by space battleships and certain events changed so that the author can induce what might have occurred differently.

Hard/Soft Science Fiction: is a category of science fiction marked by an emphasis on scientific accuracy. The terms were first used in print in 1957 by P. Schuyler Miller in a review of John W. Campbell, Jr.‘s "Islands of Space" in Astounding Science Fiction. The complementary term Soft Science Fiction, formed by comparison to hard science fiction, first appeared in the late 1970s. It was created to emphasize the distinction between the "hard” (natural) and “soft” (social) sciences. Science fiction critic Gary Westfahl thinks that both terms are ways of describing stories that reviewers and commentators have found useful.

Alternate History: or alternative history (British English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently than as history recorded them. These stories are set in a world in which history has deviated from history as it is generally known; more simply put, alternate history asks the question, “What if history had developed differently?” Most works in this genre are set in real historical contexts, yet feature social, geopolitical or industrial settings that developed differently or at a different pace from our own. This subgenre comprises fiction in which a change or point of divergence happens that causes history to diverge from our own.

Steampunk:  is a subgenre of science fiction or science fantasy that refers to works set in an era where steam power is still widely used;19th century’s British Victorian era or American “Wild West, where steam power has maintained mainstream usage, or in a fantasy world that employs steam power in the same way. Although its literary origins are sometimes identified with the cyberpunk genre, it has marked differences. Inventions like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne are often included. Steampunk encompasses alternate history-style elements of past technology like dirigibles or mechanical computers combined with futuristic technology like multi-function goggles, giant robots and ray guns. Steampunk may be described as neo-Victorian. It most recognizably features anachronistic technologies or retro futuristic inventions as people in the 19th century might have envisioned them, and is likewise rooted in the era’s perspective on fashion, culture, architectural style, and art.

Romantic Science Fiction: This genre seems to be written almost exclusively for and by women. In most cases, it is simply a love story set in the future or a distant planet, although it can be set in the past or an alternate world as well. It centers more on relationships than on science, and any futuristic or fantasy elements take second place to the relationships. Usually there is no attempt to explain why the technology works; only its actions are described. A flying car or spaceship is simply said to go places, time travel simply happens without any attempt to describe the scientific method by which this might work. Probably the two most recognizable writers of romantic science fiction are Jayne Castle’s (AKA Krenz) books on Harmony and Diana Gabaldon’s Highlander series (now a TV series). Romantic Sci-Fi includes the sub-genre of Romantic Fantasy (virtually the same except magic is used rather than technology). A fuller description of this sub genre can be found in the Romance category.

FANTASY

Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, most often without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses magic or other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy is generally distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the expectation that it will steer clear of scientific and macabre themes, though there is a great deal of overlap among the three, all of which are subgenres of speculative fiction.

Urban Fantasy:   is a subgenre of fantasy defined by place; it is a fantastic narrative with an urban setting. Urban fantasy exists on one side of a spectrum opposite high fantasy, which is set in an entirely fictitious world. Many urban fantasies are set in contemporary times with supernatural elements. However, the stories can take place in historical, modern, or futuristic periods. The prerequisite is that they must be primarily set in a city.

Contemporary Fantasy:  is generally distinguished from horror fiction—which also has contemporary settings and fantastic elements—by the overall tone; emphasizing joy or wonder rather than fear or dread. These are stories set in the accepted real world in contemporary times; magic and magical creatures exist but are not commonly seen or understood; either living in the crevices of our world or leaking over from alternate worlds. It has much in common with and sometimes overlaps with secret history. A work of fantasy where the magic does not remain secret, or does not have any known relationship to known history, would not fit into this subgenre.

Traditional Fantasy:

Please see the definition of Fantasy above.

Horror: is a genre of fiction which is intended to frighten, scare, disgust, or startle their readers or viewers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon has defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length… which shocks or even frightens the reader, or perhaps induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing”. It creates an eerie and frightening atmosphere. Horror is frequently supernatural though it can be non-supernatural. Often the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society.

Historical Fantasy: This is a category of fantasy and a sub genre of historical fiction that combines fantastic elements (such as magic) into the story. There is much crossover with other subgenres of fantasy; books classed as Arthurian, Celtic, or Dark Ages could just as easily be placed in Historical Fantasy. Stories fitting this classification generally take place prior to the 20th century. 

Weird Fiction: is a subgenre of speculative fiction starting in the late 19th and early 20th century. It can include ghost stories and other tales of the macabre. Weird fiction is distinguished from horror and fantasy in its blending of supernatural, mythical, and even scientific elements. British authors who have embraced this style have published their work in mainstream literary magazines. American weird fiction writers included Edgar Allan Poe, William Hope Hodgson, H. P. Lovecraft, Lord Dunsany, Arthur Machen M. R. James, and Clark Ashton Smith.

Comic Fantasy:  is a subgenre of fantasy that is primarily humorous in intent and tone. Usually set in imaginary worlds, comic fantasy can spoof and parody other works of fantasy, detective fiction or other genres. It is sometimes known as Low Fantasy in contrast to High Fantasy, which is primarily serious in intent and tone. The term “low fantasy” is used to represent other types of fantasy, however, so while comic fantasies may also correctly be classified as low fantasy, many examples of low fantasy are not comic in nature. Two of the most famous examples in this genre would be the Myth Series which successfully spoofed Fantasy and the Garrett P.I. series which did a parody of Rex Stout’s Nero Wolfe detective series. Other writers of comic fantasy are emerging; notably Dakota Cassidy with her werewolf/witch spoofs and Amanda M. Lee’s Wicked Witches of the Midwest series.

Slipstream: Slipstream is a kind of fantastic or non-realistic fiction that crosses the traditional genre boundaries between science fiction, fantasy, and literary fiction. Slipstream falls between speculative fiction and mainstream fiction. While some slipstream novels employ elements of science fiction or fantasy, not all do. The common unifying factor of these books is some degree of the surreal, the not-entirely real, or the markedly anti-real.

Epic / High Fantasy: High Fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy, and is defined by its setting in a fictional universe or by the epic stature of its characters, themes, and plot. The term “high fantasy” was coined by Lloyd Alexander in a 1971 essay, “High Fantasy and Heroic Romance” (originally given at the New England Round Table of Children’s Librarians in October 1969). Epic Fantasy has been described as containing three elements: it must be a trilogy or longer, its time-span must encompass years or more, and it must contain a large back-story or universe setting in which the story takes place.

ADVENTURE

Adventure fiction refers to fiction that puts the lead characters in danger, or gives the reader a sense of excitement

Traditional Western: Western fiction is a genre set in the American Old West frontier from the late eighteenth to the late nineteenth century. Well-known writers of Western fiction include Zane Grey from the early 20th century and Louis L'Amour and John McCord from the mid-20th century. A traditional western includes cowboys, Native Americans, covered wagons, and women in aprons with shotguns. The genre peaked around the early 1960s, largely due to the popularity of televised Westerns such as Bonanza. Readership began to drop off in the mid- to late 1970s and has reached a new low in the 2000s. Most bookstores, carry few Western fiction books. Nevertheless, several Western fiction series are published monthly, such as The Trailsman, Slocum, Longarm and The Gunsmith. The genre has seen the rumblings of a revival with the advent of romances in western settings by authors such as Linda Lael Miller and Joanna Lindsey.

Treasure Hunting: treasure hunting fiction has a great deal in common with both detective fiction and straight adventure fiction. The hunter must solve a series of clues to find the treasure A good treasure hunting novel delivers thrills and a rising excitement as clues are worked out and uncovered.  There is also opposition from rivals as well. And of course, the hunt has a successful conclusion, or an adequate reason is given why it does not.

MISCELLANEOUS GENRES

General: like Children’s and Youth Fiction, General Fiction can span all decades and genres. These are books that fall into the general fiction genre are often ones that straddle so many genres it’s hard to place them in any specific genre. The books in the general fiction genre can be a combination of any three or more genres of fiction that cause them to be outside the limits and rules of those specific genres. Examples of this: a science fiction, fantasy, romance that has strong elements of comedy and action and adventure. The Kite Runner, Water for Elephants, Life of Pi, The Great Gatsby, The Time Traveler’s Wife, and the Poisonwood Bible. General Fiction is that strange catch-all genre where titles no one knows how to classify end up. This section generally takes up about half a bookstore’s inventory. But even though it’s a vague term, there are some types fiction that are guaranteed to be found in this section of bookstores or libraries. Classic Literature: Stories that are representative of the time in which they were written, but because they have a universal appeal, the books lasted in print and popularity.  Drama: A novel centered on the conflict or contrast of characters. Humor:  A humorous novel has one goal:  to provide amusement and make the reader laugh.  Satire: This is category closely related to humor, but it has a more malicious edge. Its main elements are irony, sarcasm and parody. Unlike straight humor, satire is created to draw attention to social problems through wit. Satire always have a message of some kind. Realistic Fiction: All realistic fiction has these three elements 1) a setting that can be found in the real world 2) the characters will be lifelike and fully formed 3) a conflict or problem that centers on everyday issues or personal relationships that could exist in real life. Tragedy: A tragedy takes a reader through events leading to the self-destruction or catastrophe for the lead characters or those around them. It is sometimes referred to as a tear-jerker. A tragicomedy is a combination of tragedy and comedy. To qualify as this type of fiction there must be an equal mixture of both tragedy and comedy. Chick Lit or Women’s Fiction: This is fiction aimed at women and addresses a variety of subjects, i.e. from shopping to relationships. Think Sex and the City. Inspirational Fiction: this type of novel has the goal of inspiring the reader. Its lead characters overcome obstacles and it can be set in the past, present or the future provided that the setting could occur in real life. Most Christian fiction will fall under this category. Historical Fiction: we covered Historical fiction in the various genres, but there are some novels who simply don’t fit into them. The main idea would be to showcase the past in an accurate manner while making the characters and interesting. If it involves real events, they must be reported accurately and without change. The most successful historical fiction sometimes tells the story of ordinary people and how they are affected by historical events.

Youth Fiction (YA): I made this a separate category because the plots of these novels span all the genres. Young adult fiction or young adult literature (YA) is fiction for readers from 12 to 18. However, authors and readers of “young teen novels” often define it as works written for age 15 to the early 20s. The terms young adult novel, juvenile novel, teenage fiction, young adult book, etc., all refer to the works in this category.  The subject and story lines of young adult literature must be consistent with the age and experience of the main character, but this literature spans the spectrum of fiction genres. Stories that focus on the specific challenges of youth or teens are sometimes referred to as coming-of-age novels. 

Children’s Fiction: is a genre all to itself. This is children’s books written especially for children from 0 to 12 years old. Like YA fiction, it includes a broad spectrum of the genres, with certain differences from YA and Adult fiction. Picture Books: Children’s books that provide a “visual experience” - tell a story with pictures. There may or may not be text with the book. The content of the book can be explained with the illustrated pictures. Picture Story Books are Children’s books that have pictures or illustrations to complement the story and usually are aimed for a trifle older audience depending on their reading ability. These are often done on a collaborative basis with the author employing an illustrator, or vice versa. Both the text and the illustrations are important to the development of the story. The pictures are the “eye-candy” that get children’s attention, but the text is needed to complete the story. Traditional Literature, includes stories passed down from generation to generation. In many ways, the fact that they do change over time is what makes them so fascinating because of the link they provide to the past. To remain meaningful in different eras, the stories while keeping much of their original flavor and content,  must evolve in subtle ways to be acceptable to current mores and culture. These are folktales, fairy tales, fables, legends and myths. Children’s Historical Fiction is stories that are written to illustrate or convey information about a specific time or historical event. Authors use historical fiction to create drama and interest based on real events in people’s lives. Children’s Modern Fantasy is probably easier to define by example or by what it isn’t. The stories are contemporary or nondescript as to time periods. They are imaginative tales requiring readers to accept story lines that clearly cannot be true. They may be based on animals that talk, facets of science fiction, supernatural or horror, or combinations of these elements. “Charlottes Web,” “Winnie the Pooh,” “Alice in Wonderland”, “Willie Wonka and the Chocolate Factory,” and “The Wizard of Oz” are all examples of modern fantasy written for young readers up to 12 years old. Children’s Realistic Fiction has main characters of roughly the age (or slightly older than) the book’s intended audience. The books offer a “real-world” problem or challenge and show how a young person solves that problem.

Posted 18 weeks ago

All Our Tomorrows

Gail Daley – All Our Tomorrows – Science Fiction Romance https://www.amazon.com/dp/1534698167/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&qid=1481926403&sr=8-3&keywords=Gail+Daley

The Handfasting is an epic tale of a family’s struggle to survive on an alien planet. Book 3, All Our Tomorrows - a warrior/priestess teams up with a Bard from another world and genetically created children to defeat a deadly enemy and save their planet from destruction.

 

NOW AVAILABLE ON AMAZON

IN E-BOOK AND SOFT COVER

Posted 19 weeks ago
<p><b>In a land where magic
and witchcraft is a death sentence, an amnesiac fighter on the run falls for a
traveling fortuneteller’s granddaughter hiding from the deadly secrets in her
past.</b></p><p>





�Ь[�</p>

In a land where magic and witchcraft is a death sentence, an amnesiac fighter on the run falls for a traveling fortuneteller’s granddaughter hiding from the deadly secrets in her past.

�Ь[�

Posted 32 weeks ago
<p><a href="http://spaceexp.tumblr.com/post/154256621430/spaaaace-travel-by-x-ray-delta-one" class="tumblr_blog">spaceexp</a>:</p><blockquote>
<p>… spaaaace travel!</p> <p><small>by <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/40143737@N02/30682482374">x-ray delta one</a></small></p>
</blockquote>

spaceexp:

… spaaaace travel!

by x-ray delta one

Posted 32 weeks ago
<p><b><i>Hard copies available by December 19, 2016.</i></b></p><p><b><i>An Alien Worlds Romance—</i></b> <b><i>a warrior/priestess teams up with a Bard from another world and genetically created
children to defeat a deadly enemy and save their planet from destruction</i></b><b><i> </i></b></p><p><b><i> L</i></b><b><i>ady Drusilla O’Teague,</i></b> born of a powerful line of psychically gifted women; she has been
trained from birth as warrior and Dragon Talker. She learned to distrust her
own feelings as child when she was unable to shield herself from the seesaw
emotions of others.</p><p><b><i>Lucas Lewellyn</i></b> an off-world survivor of the Karamine Wars was bred from a tribe of
Shamans and Bards. He was given the inherent ability to compel with his voice, but
he is untrained in the use of his powers. He knows when he meets Drusilla the
first time that their destinies are linked, but will she admit it?</p><p>Their world of Vensoog is in danger. The
Thieves Guild wants the deposits of Azorite—the mighty crystals used to power
spaceships and found in large numbers on Vensoog. To save their world, Drusilla
and Lucas are going to need the help of the genetically crafted children
created by those threatening Vensoog. Together they must drive off the Guild
and defeat their enemies.</p><p> <b><i>Juliette Jones—</i></b>crafted in the Guild’s genetic Labs to be super smart, ruthless, wily and
conniving–the perfect spy. But the Guild never realized they had also given
her a loving heart.</p><p><b><i>Lucinda Karns—</i></b>the daughter of a Thieves Guild Lieutenant, she was given enhanced
creativity genes to make her the perfect icy thinker and planner; but those
genes sparked a need for balance giving her a moral compass.</p><p><b><i>Violet Ishimara</i></b>— She was designed with a high degree of empathy to be a tool for the
Guild, but her alliance with the Vensoog Sand Dragon <b><i>Jelli</i></b> gave
her the courage to stand up to her masters.</p><p><b><i>Rupert</i></b>, the intuitive chemist and <b><i>Roderick</i></b>, the electronic genius
— Orphaned twins who were seen by the Guild as tools to turn into weapons,
turned out to be a lot tougher than the Guild expected. </p>

Hard copies available by December 19, 2016.

An Alien Worlds Romance— a warrior/priestess teams up with a Bard from another world and genetically created children to defeat a deadly enemy and save their planet from destruction

 Lady Drusilla O’Teague, born of a powerful line of psychically gifted women; she has been trained from birth as warrior and Dragon Talker. She learned to distrust her own feelings as child when she was unable to shield herself from the seesaw emotions of others.

Lucas Lewellyn an off-world survivor of the Karamine Wars was bred from a tribe of Shamans and Bards. He was given the inherent ability to compel with his voice, but he is untrained in the use of his powers. He knows when he meets Drusilla the first time that their destinies are linked, but will she admit it?

Their world of Vensoog is in danger. The Thieves Guild wants the deposits of Azorite—the mighty crystals used to power spaceships and found in large numbers on Vensoog. To save their world, Drusilla and Lucas are going to need the help of the genetically crafted children created by those threatening Vensoog. Together they must drive off the Guild and defeat their enemies.

 Juliette Jones—crafted in the Guild’s genetic Labs to be super smart, ruthless, wily and conniving–the perfect spy. But the Guild never realized they had also given her a loving heart.

Lucinda Karns—the daughter of a Thieves Guild Lieutenant, she was given enhanced creativity genes to make her the perfect icy thinker and planner; but those genes sparked a need for balance giving her a moral compass.

Violet Ishimara— She was designed with a high degree of empathy to be a tool for the Guild, but her alliance with the Vensoog Sand Dragon Jelli gave her the courage to stand up to her masters.

Rupert, the intuitive chemist and Roderick, the electronic genius — Orphaned twins who were seen by the Guild as tools to turn into weapons, turned out to be a lot tougher than the Guild expected.

Posted 32 weeks ago
<p>Estimated publication date April 2017</p><p><b>On a raw, untamed world,
three sisters make different choices to find happiness and love as well as
safety. Bethany marries a mercenary fighter to protect her family, Iris agrees
to an arranged wedding with an old friend, and Jeanne runs off with the son of
her enemy. </b></p><p>When the
technology to locate and open gates to other worlds was discovered on earth in
the late 21<sup>st</sup> century, access to this knowledge was strictly
regulated by the governments and industry hoping to exploit the vast resources
on the unmapped worlds. Once the knowledge of how to locate and open gates to
other worlds was discovered, it wasn’t long before the new technology was
leaked and illegally created Portals began cropping up. Prohibited Settlers slipped
through these Forbidden portals in search of freedom, adventure and escape. There
was no going back and these adventurers had only the technology they could
carry with them to defend themselves against alien plants and animals on
strange new worlds. Adventure meant a one-way ticket to a hardscrabble
existence. Freedom meant no law to run to for protection from each other.</p><p> This is the first book in my
Portal Worlds series. Publishing eta is June 2017. I would appreciate your
feedback.</p><p><a href="https://www.createspace.com/Preview/1206010">https://www.createspace.com/Preview/1206010</a></p>

Estimated publication date April 2017

On a raw, untamed world, three sisters make different choices to find happiness and love as well as safety. Bethany marries a mercenary fighter to protect her family, Iris agrees to an arranged wedding with an old friend, and Jeanne runs off with the son of her enemy.

When the technology to locate and open gates to other worlds was discovered on earth in the late 21st century, access to this knowledge was strictly regulated by the governments and industry hoping to exploit the vast resources on the unmapped worlds. Once the knowledge of how to locate and open gates to other worlds was discovered, it wasn’t long before the new technology was leaked and illegally created Portals began cropping up. Prohibited Settlers slipped through these Forbidden portals in search of freedom, adventure and escape. There was no going back and these adventurers had only the technology they could carry with them to defend themselves against alien plants and animals on strange new worlds. Adventure meant a one-way ticket to a hardscrabble existence. Freedom meant no law to run to for protection from each other.

 This is the first book in my Portal Worlds series. Publishing eta is June 2017. I would appreciate your feedback.

https://www.createspace.com/Preview/1206010

Posted 32 weeks ago
<figure class="tmblr-full" data-orig-height="1201" data-orig-width="1501"><img src="http://68.media.tumblr.com/c9367eeb1a323eaca2aa6cbdd51a58c1/tumblr_inline_ofrysidGsf1tbmkg3_540.jpg" data-orig-height="1201" data-orig-width="1501"/></figure><p>COMFORT
= PRODUCTIVITY </p><p>Why is it important for a writer to have a comfortable space to
write? As a writer, I have to say that if I’m uncomfortable physically, it
makes it much harder to concentrate on being creative. If I am in the creative
zone, I may spend 10 or 12 hours at my terminal with only short breaks for food
or to use the restroom. Fatigue or even repetitive motion injuries from typing
on a regular keyboard or sitting in a poorly designed chair decreases my
abilities and concentration. However, these things can be avoided with a few
inexpensive fixes.</p><p>Several years ago, I was introduced to
‘ergonomic furniture and computer accessories”. What is that you say? Ergonomic
furniture and accessories are designed to reduce physical stress on the person
using them, and help prevent repetitive strain (Carpal tunnel) or
musculoskeletal disorders in those of us who spend a lot of time at a computer
screen. Which is something I badly needed because I do spend a lot of time on a
computer terminal: I write fiction, I’m a blogger, I run two online/print
newsletters, and I am webmaster for several web sites. In between that, I am
also my husband’s office manager in his business. </p><p>This brings up a comparison point: which
system provides more comfort; a PC or an Apple product. I ask this because some
time ago we made the decision to switch from PC products, which is supported by
Microsoft to Apple products because of the increased security from online
malware they offer.  The relative freedom
from Malware attacks does have a drawback. Unfortunately, while Apple is way
out in front in designing products for mobile use, they are far behind the PC
industry when it comes to ergonomic accessories for its users. In fact, they do
not actually offer any ergonomic keyboards or mice in the Apple Store (or is it
mouses when talking tech?). While there are companies who do manufacture
ergonomic accessories that are compatible with Apple products, they don’t
integrate as smoothly with Apple as does Apples own products. Apples products
are usually rechargeable; sadly, the substitute stuff sold by other
manufactures is not.  Keyboards and mice
are either plug in or if they are wireless, they require batteries.</p><p>Is it worth it? Well, that depends on how
much your hands and wrists begin to hurt using a non-ergonomic keyboard for
lengthy periods. The difference in appearance between a standard keyboard and
an ergonomic one is obvious once you have seen or used one. The standard
keyboard is flat and rectangular, whereas an ergonomic keyboard actually looks
quite different. While it is still longer than it is wide, an ergonomic
keyboard is slightly curved, allowing the user’s hands to rest at a more
natural angle when typing. The keys are also slightly larger with a tiny bit
more space between them. As you can see, Ergonomic keyboards also come with a
wrist support.</p><p>I did a run on the internet and three Ergonomic keyboards that
came most highly recommended on the reviews on Amazon are shown here. However, all
the reviews did mention that not all of the keys were functional straight out
of the box, but with the additional purchase of USB Overdrive (free program app)
the keys worked fine. This was an overall view expressed on all of the
keyboards I found.<br/></p><p> This item Perixx PERIBOARD-512II W, Ergonomic Split
Keyboard - White - Natural Ergonomic Design - Wired USB Interface - Recommended
with Repetitive Stress Injuries RSI User. This one retails at about $50.00. 4 ½
stars on Amazon</p><p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/gp/aw/d/B0076KUTKS/ref=mp_s_a_1_1?qid=1455230248&sr=8-1&pi=SX200_QL40&keywords=ergonomic+keyboard+for+mac">http://www.amazon.com/gp/aw/d/B0076KUTKS/ref=mp_s_a_1_1?qid=1455230248&sr=8-1&pi=SX200_QL40&keywords=ergonomic+keyboard+for+mac</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Logitech-Mk550-Wireless-Keyboard-Mouse/dp/B003VAHYNC/ref=cm_rdp_product">Logitech Mk550 Wave Wireless Keyboard/Mouse
Combo</a> (It got 4 ½ stars on Amazon). This one retails
out at about $50.00 on Amazon.com. Logitech is one of the most trusted computer accessory brands worldwide.</p><p> Adesso Tru-Form Media
Contoured Ergonomic Keyboard (PCK-208B) got 4 stars on Amazon. This was the
least expensive one of the three ($30). It was specifically mentioned however
that this keyboard was not good for gaming.</p><p>





}Y8j٨�</p>

COMFORT = PRODUCTIVITY

Why is it important for a writer to have a comfortable space to write? As a writer, I have to say that if I’m uncomfortable physically, it makes it much harder to concentrate on being creative. If I am in the creative zone, I may spend 10 or 12 hours at my terminal with only short breaks for food or to use the restroom. Fatigue or even repetitive motion injuries from typing on a regular keyboard or sitting in a poorly designed chair decreases my abilities and concentration. However, these things can be avoided with a few inexpensive fixes.

Several years ago, I was introduced to ‘ergonomic furniture and computer accessories”. What is that you say? Ergonomic furniture and accessories are designed to reduce physical stress on the person using them, and help prevent repetitive strain (Carpal tunnel) or musculoskeletal disorders in those of us who spend a lot of time at a computer screen. Which is something I badly needed because I do spend a lot of time on a computer terminal: I write fiction, I’m a blogger, I run two online/print newsletters, and I am webmaster for several web sites. In between that, I am also my husband’s office manager in his business.

This brings up a comparison point: which system provides more comfort; a PC or an Apple product. I ask this because some time ago we made the decision to switch from PC products, which is supported by Microsoft to Apple products because of the increased security from online malware they offer.  The relative freedom from Malware attacks does have a drawback. Unfortunately, while Apple is way out in front in designing products for mobile use, they are far behind the PC industry when it comes to ergonomic accessories for its users. In fact, they do not actually offer any ergonomic keyboards or mice in the Apple Store (or is it mouses when talking tech?). While there are companies who do manufacture ergonomic accessories that are compatible with Apple products, they don’t integrate as smoothly with Apple as does Apples own products. Apples products are usually rechargeable; sadly, the substitute stuff sold by other manufactures is not.  Keyboards and mice are either plug in or if they are wireless, they require batteries.

Is it worth it? Well, that depends on how much your hands and wrists begin to hurt using a non-ergonomic keyboard for lengthy periods. The difference in appearance between a standard keyboard and an ergonomic one is obvious once you have seen or used one. The standard keyboard is flat and rectangular, whereas an ergonomic keyboard actually looks quite different. While it is still longer than it is wide, an ergonomic keyboard is slightly curved, allowing the user’s hands to rest at a more natural angle when typing. The keys are also slightly larger with a tiny bit more space between them. As you can see, Ergonomic keyboards also come with a wrist support.

I did a run on the internet and three Ergonomic keyboards that came most highly recommended on the reviews on Amazon are shown here. However, all the reviews did mention that not all of the keys were functional straight out of the box, but with the additional purchase of USB Overdrive (free program app) the keys worked fine. This was an overall view expressed on all of the keyboards I found.

 This item Perixx PERIBOARD-512II W, Ergonomic Split Keyboard - White - Natural Ergonomic Design - Wired USB Interface - Recommended with Repetitive Stress Injuries RSI User. This one retails at about $50.00. 4 ½ stars on Amazon

http://www.amazon.com/gp/aw/d/B0076KUTKS/ref=mp_s_a_1_1?qid=1455230248&sr=8-1&pi=SX200_QL40&keywords=ergonomic+keyboard+for+mac

 Logitech Mk550 Wave Wireless Keyboard/Mouse Combo (It got 4 ½ stars on Amazon). This one retails out at about $50.00 on Amazon.com. Logitech is one of the most trusted computer accessory brands worldwide.

 Adesso Tru-Form Media Contoured Ergonomic Keyboard (PCK-208B) got 4 stars on Amazon. This was the least expensive one of the three ($30). It was specifically mentioned however that this keyboard was not good for gaming.

}Y8j٨�

Posted 37 weeks ago
<p><b>REASONS FOR KEEPING GOOD RECORDS</b></p><p><b>By the Practical Artist</b></p><p><a href="http://www.thepracticalartist.com/the-practical-artists-blog.php">http://www.thepracticalartist.com/the-practical-artists-blog.php</a><b></b></p><p>How
many times I have heard fellow artists say, “I’m an artist. I don’t want to
bother with stuff like keeping records of what I paint”. Well, if you are a
hobbyist who only paints one or two paintings a year, this idea might have <i>some</i> merit—until it becomes very
important (for whatever reason) to locate a piece of art you created. There is
no reason for an artist to become overwhelmed by the idea of keeping records of
when a piece of art was created and where it’s been shown. Knowing which shows
into which you have previously entered an art piece might even save you some
embarrassment when a show chair complains that you keep entering the same art
in a yearly show! Knowing <i>when</i> you
created a piece of art might become important if someone pirates your work and
sells it because who created the art first often decides who has the copyright.
If you have no record of when an art piece was created, you might even be found
in violation of your own work!</p><p>If
you sell your art, it is considered income and over a certain amount, it must
be reported as such to the IRS on your federal taxes. If you participate in a
booth event, you are usually required to have a seller’s permit, collect sales
tax, and then report and pay that sales tax to the State.</p><p> Art
is a business as well as a creative endeavor. Losing your art can be a
financial loss. Not being aware of losing money because you don’t keep track of
costs can create a huge problem. </p><p><b>WHAT IS NEEDED TO KEEP RECORDS</b></p><p>Hey,
relax; this isn’t as difficult as it sounds! Let’s take this one step at a
time, using one piece of work. Step one: decide in what form you are going to
keep your work log. While
it is very helpful to have this information stored on a computer, artists were
tracking their work using paper files long before computers became popular. I
personally prefer using a computer worksheet, however, all of this stuff can be
put on a sheet of paper and kept in a binder. For the initial record, I
recommend a single sheet or worksheet per art piece. (Please see the Art
Information Sheet in the Sample section)</p><p>ITEM
1—a pictorial image of your work. This can be in the form a printed photograph,
a slide or a digital image. If your work is 3-deminsional, be sure to take
photos of all sides of the work. Since this image is not going to be used to
reproduce the work, a small, low-resolution image will suffice. The image
should be large enough to see details of the work, clear and without blurring.</p><p>ITEM
2—the title of your work, size, style/genre and when it was finished.</p><p>ITEM
3—a brief description of the work (use complete sentences—why will become clear
later). Optional—I also like to keep a kind of diary as to what I wanted to
achieve, why I chose this image, and what was going on in my life when I
created this art piece.</p><p>ITEM
4—Keywords to be used when downloading the photo of your art to your web site
or other internet media.</p><p>ITEM
5—Show and exhibit record is a list of what shows or exhibits were entered,
when they took place and if the art won awards.</p><p>ITEM
6—wholesale and Retail price. This is probably the hardest thing for an artist
to decide on—how much to charge for an artwork! What is the difference between
Wholesale and Retail? Wholesale is always lower than Retail. Your wholesale
price at a minimum should cover the cost of what it cost you to create the art,
plus any gallery commission fees and hopefully with a small profit margin.
Retail price for an art piece should cover all this plus what you as an artist
feel the art is worth. I realize this is very subjective but most of art <i>is</i> subjective.</p><p>ITEM
7—Incidental information such as the date you formally copyrighted the work,
cost of the copyright, etc. More about copyrights later in the Copyright
section.</p><p>ITEM
8—If you had limited editions of a painting or photograph or copies of a
sculpture made, when, how many , how much it cost to make them, how many sold
and how much you made when you did.</p><p>ITEM
9—the date you sold the original art and the name and address of the Buyer.</p><p><b>DON’T LOSE YOUR WORK!</b></p><p>When
I created Art-Tique with fellow artist Lea Adams, one of the purposes of the
organization was to find low-cost places where artists could show and sell
their work. It was then I discovered the pitfalls of having a lot of art in a
lot of different venues! Many times artists would fail to pick up their art at
the designated time because they couldn’t remember which venue they had placed
it in, and when it was due to be retrieved! For my own sanity, I created an Art
Location Sheet (see the example in the Sample section). I prefer to use a
worksheet program for this, although it can also be kept on paper. I prefer the
worksheet format because it can be sorted many times by the location so it is
very easy to see not only where a particular painting is, but also how many
paintings I have at that location, and when they are due to be picked up. It
also provides a quick reference if I have previously entered it in a particular
show. The items listed below should be entered in a single line (one line per
artwork).</p><p>ITEM
1—Art Title</p><p>ITEM
2—(optional) Media</p><p>ITEM
3—(optinal0 Subject</p><p>ITEM
4—Date of receiving for show or exhibit</p><p>ITEM
5—Show name</p><p>ITEM
6—pick up date</p><p>ITEMS
7, 8, 9—past three shows or exhibits</p><p>There,
you see this wasn’t hard at all!</p>

REASONS FOR KEEPING GOOD RECORDS

By the Practical Artist

http://www.thepracticalartist.com/the-practical-artists-blog.php

How many times I have heard fellow artists say, “I’m an artist. I don’t want to bother with stuff like keeping records of what I paint”. Well, if you are a hobbyist who only paints one or two paintings a year, this idea might have some merit—until it becomes very important (for whatever reason) to locate a piece of art you created. There is no reason for an artist to become overwhelmed by the idea of keeping records of when a piece of art was created and where it’s been shown. Knowing which shows into which you have previously entered an art piece might even save you some embarrassment when a show chair complains that you keep entering the same art in a yearly show! Knowing when you created a piece of art might become important if someone pirates your work and sells it because who created the art first often decides who has the copyright. If you have no record of when an art piece was created, you might even be found in violation of your own work!

If you sell your art, it is considered income and over a certain amount, it must be reported as such to the IRS on your federal taxes. If you participate in a booth event, you are usually required to have a seller’s permit, collect sales tax, and then report and pay that sales tax to the State.

 Art is a business as well as a creative endeavor. Losing your art can be a financial loss. Not being aware of losing money because you don’t keep track of costs can create a huge problem.

WHAT IS NEEDED TO KEEP RECORDS

Hey, relax; this isn’t as difficult as it sounds! Let’s take this one step at a time, using one piece of work. Step one: decide in what form you are going to keep your work log. While it is very helpful to have this information stored on a computer, artists were tracking their work using paper files long before computers became popular. I personally prefer using a computer worksheet, however, all of this stuff can be put on a sheet of paper and kept in a binder. For the initial record, I recommend a single sheet or worksheet per art piece. (Please see the Art Information Sheet in the Sample section)

ITEM 1—a pictorial image of your work. This can be in the form a printed photograph, a slide or a digital image. If your work is 3-deminsional, be sure to take photos of all sides of the work. Since this image is not going to be used to reproduce the work, a small, low-resolution image will suffice. The image should be large enough to see details of the work, clear and without blurring.

ITEM 2—the title of your work, size, style/genre and when it was finished.

ITEM 3—a brief description of the work (use complete sentences—why will become clear later). Optional—I also like to keep a kind of diary as to what I wanted to achieve, why I chose this image, and what was going on in my life when I created this art piece.

ITEM 4—Keywords to be used when downloading the photo of your art to your web site or other internet media.

ITEM 5—Show and exhibit record is a list of what shows or exhibits were entered, when they took place and if the art won awards.

ITEM 6—wholesale and Retail price. This is probably the hardest thing for an artist to decide on—how much to charge for an artwork! What is the difference between Wholesale and Retail? Wholesale is always lower than Retail. Your wholesale price at a minimum should cover the cost of what it cost you to create the art, plus any gallery commission fees and hopefully with a small profit margin. Retail price for an art piece should cover all this plus what you as an artist feel the art is worth. I realize this is very subjective but most of art is subjective.

ITEM 7—Incidental information such as the date you formally copyrighted the work, cost of the copyright, etc. More about copyrights later in the Copyright section.

ITEM 8—If you had limited editions of a painting or photograph or copies of a sculpture made, when, how many , how much it cost to make them, how many sold and how much you made when you did.

ITEM 9—the date you sold the original art and the name and address of the Buyer.

DON’T LOSE YOUR WORK!

When I created Art-Tique with fellow artist Lea Adams, one of the purposes of the organization was to find low-cost places where artists could show and sell their work. It was then I discovered the pitfalls of having a lot of art in a lot of different venues! Many times artists would fail to pick up their art at the designated time because they couldn’t remember which venue they had placed it in, and when it was due to be retrieved! For my own sanity, I created an Art Location Sheet (see the example in the Sample section). I prefer to use a worksheet program for this, although it can also be kept on paper. I prefer the worksheet format because it can be sorted many times by the location so it is very easy to see not only where a particular painting is, but also how many paintings I have at that location, and when they are due to be picked up. It also provides a quick reference if I have previously entered it in a particular show. The items listed below should be entered in a single line (one line per artwork).

ITEM 1—Art Title

ITEM 2—(optional) Media

ITEM 3—(optinal0 Subject

ITEM 4—Date of receiving for show or exhibit

ITEM 5—Show name

ITEM 6—pick up date

ITEMS 7, 8, 9—past three shows or exhibits

There, you see this wasn’t hard at all!

Posted 41 weeks ago

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